INT n/INTO/INT 3 (Call to Interrupt Procedure)

Opcodes

Opcode Instruction Op/En 64-Bit Mode Compat/Leg Mode Description
CC INT 3 NP Valid Valid Interrupt 3—trap to debugger.
CD ib INT imm8 I Valid Valid Interrupt vector specified by immediate byte.
CE INTO NP Invalid Valid Interrupt 4—if overflow flag is 1.

Instruction Operand Encoding

Op/En Operand 1 Operand 2 Operand 3 Operand 4
NP NA NA NA NA
I imm8 NA NA NA

Description

The INT n instruction generates a call to the interrupt or exception handler specified with the destination operand (see the section titled “Interrupts and Exceptions” in Chapter 6 of the Intel® 64 and IA-32 Architectures Software Developer’s Manual, Volume 1). The destination operand specifies a vector from 0 to 255, encoded as an 8-bit unsigned intermediate value. Each vector provides an index to a gate descriptor in the IDT. The first 32 vectors are reserved by Intel for system use. Some of these vectors are used for internally generated exceptions.

The INT n instruction is the general mnemonic for executing a software-generated call to an interrupt handler. The INTO instruction is a special mnemonic for calling overflow exception (#OF), exception 4. The overflow interrupt checks the OF flag in the EFLAGS register and calls the overflow interrupt handler if the OF flag is set to 1. (The INTO instruction cannot be used in 64-bit mode.)

The INT 3 instruction generates a special one byte opcode (CC) that is intended for calling the debug exception handler. (This one byte form is valuable because it can be used to replace the first byte of any instruction with a breakpoint, including other one byte instructions, without over-writing other code). To further support its function as a debug breakpoint, the interrupt generated with the CC opcode also differs from the regular software interrupts as follows:

Note that the “normal” 2-byte opcode for INT 3 (CD03) does not have these special features. Intel and Microsoft assemblers will not generate the CD03 opcode from any mnemonic, but this opcode can be created by direct numeric code definition or by self-modifying code.

The action of the INT n instruction (including the INTO and INT 3 instructions) is similar to that of a far call made with the CALL instruction. The primary difference is that with the INT n instruction, the EFLAGS register is pushed onto the stack before the return address. (The return address is a far address consisting of the current values of the CS and EIP registers.) Returns from interrupt procedures are handled with the IRET instruction, which pops the EFLAGS information and return address from the stack.

The vector specifies an interrupt descriptor in the interrupt descriptor table (IDT); that is, it provides index into the IDT. The selected interrupt descriptor in turn contains a pointer to an interrupt or exception handler procedure. In protected mode, the IDT contains an array of 8-byte descriptors, each of which is an interrupt gate, trap gate, or task gate. In real-address mode, the IDT is an array of 4-byte far pointers (2-byte code segment selector and a 2-byte instruction pointer), each of which point directly to a procedure in the selected segment. (Note that in real-address mode, the IDT is called the interrupt vector table, and its pointers are called interrupt vectors.)

The following decision table indicates which action in the lower portion of the table is taken given the conditions in the upper portion of the table. Each Y in the lower section of the decision table represents a procedure defined in the “Operation” section for this instruction (except #GP).

Table 3-61. Decision Table

PE 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Table 3-61. Decision Table (Contd.)

VM 0 1 1
IOPL 3 =3
DPL/CPL RELATIONSHIP DPL CPL DPL CPL DPL= CPL or C DPL CPL NC
INTERRUPT TYPE S/W
GATE TYPE Task Trap or Interrupt Trap or Interrupt Trap or Interrupt Trap or Interrupt Trap or Interrupt
REAL-ADDRESS-MODE Y
PROTECTED-MODE Y Y Y Y Y Y Y
TRAP-OR-INTERRUPT-GATE Y Y Y Y Y
INTER-PRIVILEGE-LEVEL-INTERRUPT Y
INTRA-PRIVILEGE-LEVEL-INTERRUPT Y
INTERRUPT-FROM-VIRTUAL-8086-MODE Y
TASK-GATE Y
#GP Y Y Y

NOTES:

Don't Care.

Y

Yes, action taken.

Blank

Action not taken.

When the processor is executing in virtual-8086 mode, the IOPL determines the action of the INT n instruction. If the IOPL is less than 3, the processor generates a #GP(selector) exception; if the IOPL is 3, the processor executes a protected mode interrupt to privilege level 0. The interrupt gate's DPL must be set to 3 and the target CPL of the interrupt handler procedure must be 0 to execute the protected mode interrupt to privilege level 0.

The interrupt descriptor table register (IDTR) specifies the base linear address and limit of the IDT. The initial base address value of the IDTR after the processor is powered up or reset is 0.

Operation

The following operational description applies not only to the INT n and INTO instructions, but also to external inter-rupts, nonmaskable interrupts (NMIs), and exceptions. Some of these events push onto the stack an error code.

The operational description specifies numerous checks whose failure may result in delivery of a nested exception. In these cases, the original event is not delivered.

The operational description specifies the error code delivered by any nested exception. In some cases, the error code is specified with a pseudofunction error_code(num,idt,ext), where idt and ext are bit values. The pseudofunc-tion produces an error code as follows: (1) if idt is 0, the error code is (num FCH) | ext; (2) if idt is 1, the error code is (num « 3) | 2 | ext.

In many cases, the pseudofunction error_code is invoked with a pseudovariable EXT. The value of EXT depends on the nature of the event whose delivery encountered a nested exception: if that event is a software interrupt, EXT is 0; otherwise, EXT is 1.

IF PE = 0
    THEN
         GOTO REAL-ADDRESS-MODE;
    ELSE (* PE = 1 *)
         IF (VM = 1 and IOPL 
 3 AND INT 
n
)
              THEN
                     #GP(0); (* Bit 0 of error code is 0 because INT 
n *
)
              ELSE (* Protected mode, IA-32e mode, or virtual-8086 mode interrupt *)
                    IF (IA32_EFER.LMA = 0)
                         THEN (* Protected mode, or virtual-8086 mode interrupt *)
                              GOTO PROTECTED-MODE;
                    ELSE (* IA-32e mode interrupt *)
                         GOTO IA-32e-MODE;
                    FI;
         FI;
FI;
REAL-ADDRESS-MODE:
    IF ((vector_number « 2) + 3) is not within IDT limit
         THEN #GP; FI;
    IF stack not large enough for a 6-byte return information
         THEN #SS; FI;
    Push (EFLAGS[15:0]);
    IF ← 0; (* Clear interrupt flag *)
    TF ← 0; (* Clear trap flag *)
    AC ← 0; (* Clear AC flag *)
    Push(CS);
    Push(IP);
    (* No error codes are pushed in real-address mode*)
    CS ← IDT(Descriptor (vector_number « 2), selector));
    EIP ← IDT(Descriptor (vector_number « 2), offset)); (* 16 bit offset AND 0000FFFFH *)
END;
PROTECTED-MODE:
    IF ((vector_number « 3) + 7) is not within IDT limits
    or selected IDT descriptor is not an interrupt-, trap-, or task-gate type
         THEN #GP(error_code(vector_number,1,EXT)); FI;
         (* idt operand to error_code set because vector is used *)
    IF software interrupt (* Generated by INT 
n
, INT3, or INTO *)
         THEN
              IF gate DPL 
 CPL (* PE = 1, DPL 
 CPL, software interrupt *)
                    THEN #GP(error_code(vector_number,1,0)); FI;
                    (* idt operand to error_code set because vector is used *)
                    (* ext operand to error_code is 0 because INT 
n
, INT3, or INTO*)
    FI;
    IF gate not present
         THEN #NP(error_code(vector_number,1,EXT)); FI;
         (* idt operand to error_code set because vector is used *)
    IF task gate (* Specified in the selected interrupt table descriptor *)
         THEN GOTO TASK-GATE;
         ELSE GOTO TRAP-OR-INTERRUPT-GATE; (* PE = 1, trap/interrupt gate *)
    FI;
END;
IA-32e-MODE:
    IF INTO and CS.L = 1 (64-bit mode)
         THEN #UD;
    FI;
    IF ((vector_number « 4) + 15) is not in IDT limits
    or selected IDT descriptor is not an interrupt-, or trap-gate type
         THEN #GP(error_code(vector_number,1,EXT));
         (* idt operand to error_code set because vector is used *)
    FI;
    IF software interrupt (* Generated by INT 
n
, INT 3, or INTO *)
         THEN
              IF gate DPL 
 CPL (* PE = 1, DPL 
 CPL, software interrupt *)
                    THEN #GP(error_code(vector_number,1,0));
                    (* idt operand to error_code set because vector is used *)
                    (* ext operand to error_code is 0 because INT 
n
, INT3, or INTO*)
              FI;
    FI;
    IF gate not present
         THEN #NP(error_code(vector_number,1,EXT));
         (* idt operand to error_code set because vector is used *)
    FI;
    GOTO TRAP-OR-INTERRUPT-GATE; (* Trap/interrupt gate *)
END;
TASK-GATE: (* PE = 1, task gate *)
    Read TSS selector in task gate (IDT descriptor);
         IF local/global bit is set to local or index not within GDT limits
              THEN #GP(error_code(TSS selector,0,EXT)); FI;
              (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
         Access TSS descriptor in GDT;
         IF TSS descriptor specifies that the TSS is busy (low-order 5 bits set to 00001)
              THEN #GP(TSS selector,0,EXT)); FI;
              (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
         IF TSS not present
              THEN #NP(TSS selector,0,EXT)); FI;
              (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
    SWITCH-TASKS (with nesting) to TSS;
    IF interrupt caused by fault with error code
         THEN
              IF stack limit does not allow push of error code
                    THEN #SS(EXT); FI;
              Push(error code);
    FI;
    IF EIP not within code segment limit
         THEN #GP(EXT); FI;
END;
TRAP-OR-INTERRUPT-GATE:
    Read new code-segment selector for trap or interrupt gate (IDT descriptor);
    IF new code-segment selector is NULL
         THEN #GP(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
    IF new code-segment selector is not within its descriptor table limits
         THEN #GP(error_code(new code-segment selector,0,EXT)); FI;
         (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
    Read descriptor referenced by new code-segment selector;
    IF descriptor does not indicate a code segment or new code-segment DPL 
 CPL
         THEN #GP(error_code(new code-segment selector,0,EXT)); FI;
         (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
    IF new code-segment descriptor is not present,
         THEN #NP(error_code(new code-segment selector,0,EXT)); FI;
         (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
    IF new code segment is non-conforming with DPL 
 CPL
         THEN
              IF VM = 0
                    THEN
                         GOTO INTER-PRIVILEGE-LEVEL-INTERRUPT;
                         (* PE = 1, VM = 0, interrupt or trap gate, nonconforming code segment,
                         DPL 
 CPL *)
                    ELSE (* VM = 1 *)
                         IF new code-segment DPL ≠ 0
                              THEN #GP(error_code(new code-segment selector,0,EXT));
                              (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
                         GOTO INTERRUPT-FROM-VIRTUAL-8086-MODE; FI;
                         (* PE = 1, interrupt or trap gate, DPL 
 CPL, VM = 1 *)
              FI;
         ELSE (* PE = 1, interrupt or trap gate, DPL ≥ CPL *)
              IF VM = 1
                    THEN #GP(error_code(new code-segment selector,0,EXT));
                    (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
              IF new code segment is conforming or new code-segment DPL = CPL
                    THEN
                         GOTO INTRA-PRIVILEGE-LEVEL-INTERRUPT;
                    ELSE (* PE = 1, interrupt or trap gate, nonconforming code segment, DPL 
 CPL *)
                         #GP(error_code(new code-segment selector,0,EXT));
                         (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
              FI;
    FI;
END;
INTER-PRIVILEGE-LEVEL-INTERRUPT:
    (* PE = 1, interrupt or trap gate, non-conforming code segment, DPL 
 CPL *)
    IF (IA32_EFER.LMA = 0) (* Not IA-32e mode *)
         THEN
         (* Identify stack-segment selector for new privilege level in current TSS *)
              IF current TSS is 32-bit
                    THEN
                         TSSstackAddress ← (new code-segment DPL « 3) + 4;
                         IF (TSSstackAddress + 5) 
 current TSS limit
                              THEN #TS(error_code(current TSS selector,0,EXT)); FI;
                              (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
                         NewSS ← 2 bytes loaded from (TSS base + TSSstackAddress + 4);
                         NewESP ← 4 bytes loaded from (TSS base + TSSstackAddress);
                    ELSE
                              (* current TSS is 16-bit *)
                         TSSstackAddress ← (new code-segment DPL « 2) + 2
                         IF (TSSstackAddress + 3) 
 current TSS limit
                              THEN #TS(error_code(current TSS selector,0,EXT)); FI;
                              (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
                         NewSS ← 2 bytes loaded from (TSS base + TSSstackAddress + 2);
                         NewESP ← 2 bytes loaded from (TSS base + TSSstackAddress);
              FI;
              IF NewSS is NULL
                    THEN #TS(EXT); FI;
              IF NewSS index is not within its descriptor-table limits
              or NewSS RPL ≠ new code-segment DPL
                    THEN #TS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
                    (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
              Read new stack-segment descriptor for NewSS in GDT or LDT;
              IF new stack-segment DPL ≠ new code-segment DPL
              or new stack-segment Type does not indicate writable data segment
                    THEN #TS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
                    (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
              IF NewSS is not present
                    THEN #SS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
                    (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
         ELSE (* IA-32e mode *)
              IF IDT-gate IST = 0
                    THEN TSSstackAddress ← (new code-segment DPL « 3) + 4;
                    ELSE TSSstackAddress ← (IDT gate IST « 3) + 28;
              FI;
              IF (TSSstackAddress + 7) 
 current TSS limit
                    THEN #TS(error_code(current TSS selector,0,EXT); FI;
                    (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
              NewRSP ← 8 bytes loaded from (current TSS base + TSSstackAddress);
              NewSS ← new code-segment DPL; (* NULL selector with RPL = new CPL *)
    FI;
    IF IDT gate is 32-bit
              THEN
                    IF new stack does not have room for 24 bytes (error code pushed)
                    or 20 bytes (no error code pushed)
                         THEN #SS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
                         (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
              FI
         ELSE
              IF IDT gate is 16-bit
                    THEN
                         IF new stack does not have room for 12 bytes (error code pushed)
                         or 10 bytes (no error code pushed);
                              THEN #SS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
                              (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
              ELSE (* 64-bit IDT gate*)
                    IF StackAddress is non-canonical
                         THEN #SS(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
         FI;
    FI;
    IF (IA32_EFER.LMA = 0) (* Not IA-32e mode *)
         THEN
              IF instruction pointer from IDT gate is not within new code-segment limits
                    THEN #GP(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
              ESP ← NewESP;
              SS ← NewSS; (* Segment descriptor information also loaded *)
         ELSE (* IA-32e mode *)
              IF instruction pointer from IDT gate contains a non-canonical address
                    THEN #GP(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
              RSP ← NewRSP 
 FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF0H;
              SS ← NewSS;
    FI;
    IF IDT gate is 32-bit
         THEN
              CS:EIP ← Gate(CS:EIP); (* Segment descriptor information also loaded *)
         ELSE
              IF IDT gate 16-bit
                    THEN
                         CS:IP ← Gate(CS:IP);
                         (* Segment descriptor information also loaded *)
                    ELSE (* 64-bit IDT gate *)
                         CS:RIP ← Gate(CS:RIP);
                         (* Segment descriptor information also loaded *)
              FI;
    FI;
    IF IDT gate is 32-bit
              THEN
                    Push(far pointer to old stack);
                    (* Old SS and ESP, 3 words padded to 4 *)
                    Push(EFLAGS);
                    Push(far pointer to return instruction);
                    (* Old CS and EIP, 3 words padded to 4 *)
                    Push(ErrorCode); (* If needed, 4 bytes *)
              ELSE
                    IF IDT gate 16-bit
                         THEN
                              Push(far pointer to old stack);
                              (* Old SS and SP, 2 words *)
                              Push(EFLAGS(15-0]);
                              Push(far pointer to return instruction);
                              (* Old CS and IP, 2 words *)
                              Push(ErrorCode); (* If needed, 2 bytes *)
                         ELSE (* 64-bit IDT gate *)
                              Push(far pointer to old stack);
                              (* Old SS and SP, each an 8-byte push *)
                              Push(RFLAGS); (* 8-byte push *)
                              Push(far pointer to return instruction);
                              (* Old CS and RIP, each an 8-byte push *)
                              Push(ErrorCode); (* If needed, 8-bytes *)
              FI;
    FI;
    CPL ← new code-segment DPL;
    CS(RPL) ← CPL;
    IF IDT gate is interrupt gate
         THEN IF ← 0 (* Interrupt flag set to 0, interrupts disabled *); FI;
    TF ← 0;
    VM ← 0;
    RF ← 0;
    NT ← 0;
END;
INTERRUPT-FROM-VIRTUAL-8086-MODE:
    (* Identify stack-segment selector for privilege level 0 in current TSS *)
    IF current TSS is 32-bit
         THEN
              IF TSS limit 
 9
                    THEN #TS(error_code(current TSS selector,0,EXT)); FI;
                    (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
              NewSS ← 2 bytes loaded from (current TSS base + 8);
              NewESP ← 4 bytes loaded from (current TSS base + 4);
         ELSE (* current TSS is 16-bit *)
              IF TSS limit 
 5
                    THEN #TS(error_code(current TSS selector,0,EXT)); FI;
                    (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
              NewSS ← 2 bytes loaded from (current TSS base + 4);
              NewESP ← 2 bytes loaded from (current TSS base + 2);
    FI;
    IF NewSS is NULL
         THEN #TS(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
    IF NewSS index is not within its descriptor table limits
    or NewSS RPL ≠ 0
         THEN #TS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
         (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
    Read new stack-segment descriptor for NewSS in GDT or LDT;
    IF new stack-segment DPL ≠ 0 or stack segment does not indicate writable data segment
         THEN #TS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
         (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
    IF new stack segment not present
         THEN #SS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
         (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
    IF IDT gate is 32-bit
         THEN
              IF new stack does not have room for 40 bytes (error code pushed)
              or 36 bytes (no error code pushed)
                    THEN #SS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
                    (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
         ELSE (* IDT gate is 16-bit)
              IF new stack does not have room for 20 bytes (error code pushed)
              or 18 bytes (no error code pushed)
                    THEN #SS(error_code(NewSS,0,EXT)); FI;
                    (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
    FI;
    IF instruction pointer from IDT gate is not within new code-segment limits
         THEN #GP(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
    tempEFLAGS ← EFLAGS;
    VM ← 0;
    TF ← 0;
    RF ← 0;
    NT ← 0;
    IF service through interrupt gate
         THEN IF = 0; FI;
    TempSS ← SS;
    TempESP ← ESP;
    SS ← NewSS;
    ESP ← NewESP;
    (* Following pushes are 16 bits for 16-bit IDT gates and 32 bits for 32-bit IDT gates;
    Segment selector pushes in 32-bit mode are padded to two words *)
    Push(GS);
    Push(FS);
    Push(DS);
    Push(ES);
    Push(TempSS);
    Push(TempESP);
    Push(TempEFlags);
    Push(CS);
    Push(EIP);
    GS ← 0; (* Segment registers made NULL, invalid for use in protected mode *)
    FS ← 0;
    DS ← 0;
    ES ← 0;
    CS:IP ← Gate(CS); (* Segment descriptor information also loaded *)
    IF OperandSize = 32
         THEN
              EIP ← Gate(instruction pointer);
         ELSE (* OperandSize is 16 *)
              EIP ← Gate(instruction pointer) AND 0000FFFFH;
    FI;
    (* Start execution of new routine in Protected Mode *)
END;
INTRA-PRIVILEGE-LEVEL-INTERRUPT:
    (* PE = 1, DPL = CPL or conforming segment *)
    IF IA32_EFER.LMA = 1 (* IA-32e mode *)
         IF IDT-descriptor IST ≠ 0
              THEN
                    TSSstackAddress ← (IDT-descriptor IST « 3) + 28;
                    IF (TSSstackAddress + 7) 
 TSS limit
                         THEN #TS(error_code(current TSS selector,0,EXT)); FI;
                         (* idt operand to error_code is 0 because selector is used *)
                    NewRSP ← 8 bytes loaded from (current TSS base + TSSstackAddress);
    FI;
    IF 32-bit gate (* implies IA32_EFER.LMA = 0 *)
         THEN
              IF current stack does not have room for 16 bytes (error code pushed)
              or 12 bytes (no error code pushed)
                    THEN #SS(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
         ELSE IF 16-bit gate (* implies IA32_EFER.LMA = 0 *)
              IF current stack does not have room for 8 bytes (error code pushed)
              or 6 bytes (no error code pushed)
                    THEN #SS(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
         ELSE (* IA32_EFER.LMA = 1, 64-bit gate*)
                    IF NewRSP contains a non-canonical address
                         THEN #SS(EXT); (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
         FI;
    FI;
    IF (IA32_EFER.LMA = 0) (* Not IA-32e mode *)
         THEN
              IF instruction pointer from IDT gate is not within new code-segment limit
                    THEN #GP(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
         ELSE
              IF instruction pointer from IDT gate contains a non-canonical address
                    THEN #GP(EXT); FI; (* Error code contains NULL selector *)
              RSP ← NewRSP 
 FFFFFFFFFFFFFFF0H;
    FI;
    IF IDT gate is 32-bit (* implies IA32_EFER.LMA = 0 *)
         THEN
              Push (EFLAGS);
              Push (far pointer to return instruction); (* 3 words padded to 4 *)
              CS:EIP ← Gate(CS:EIP); (* Segment descriptor information also loaded *)
              Push (ErrorCode); (* If any *)
         ELSE
              IF IDT gate is 16-bit (* implies IA32_EFER.LMA = 0 *)
                    THEN
                         Push (FLAGS);
                         Push (far pointer to return location); (* 2 words *)
                         CS:IP ← Gate(CS:IP);
                         (* Segment descriptor information also loaded *)
                         Push (ErrorCode); (* If any *)
                    ELSE (* IA32_EFER.LMA = 1, 64-bit gate*)
                         Push(far pointer to old stack);
                         (* Old SS and SP, each an 8-byte push *)
                         Push(RFLAGS); (* 8-byte push *)
                         Push(far pointer to return instruction);
                         (* Old CS and RIP, each an 8-byte push *)
                         Push(ErrorCode); (* If needed, 8 bytes *)
                         CS:RIP ← GATE(CS:RIP);
                         (* Segment descriptor information also loaded *)
              FI;
    FI;
    CS(RPL) ← CPL;
    IF IDT gate is interrupt gate
         THEN IF ← 0; FI; (* Interrupt flag set to 0; interrupts disabled *)
    TF ← 0;
    NT ← 0;
    VM ← 0;
    RF ← 0;
END;

Flags Affected

The EFLAGS register is pushed onto the stack. The IF, TF, NT, AC, RF, and VM flags may be cleared, depending on the mode of operation of the processor when the INT instruction is executed (see the “Operation” section). If the interrupt uses a task gate, any flags may be set or cleared, controlled by the EFLAGS image in the new task’s TSS.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(error_code) If the instruction pointer in the IDT or in the interrupt-, trap-, or task gate is beyond the code segment limits. If the segment selector in the interrupt-, trap-, or task gate is NULL. If an interrupt-, trap-, or task gate, code segment, or TSS segment selector index is outside its descriptor table limits. If the vector selects a descriptor outside the IDT limits. If an IDT descriptor is not an interrupt-, trap-, or task-descriptor. If an interrupt is generated by the INT n, INT 3, or INTO instruction and the DPL of an inter-rupt-, trap-, or task-descriptor is less than the CPL. If the segment selector in an interrupt- or trap-gate does not point to a segment descriptor for a code segment. If the segment selector for a TSS has its local/global bit set for local. If a TSS segment descriptor specifies that the TSS is busy or not available.
#SS(error_code) If pushing the return address, flags, or error code onto the stack exceeds the bounds of the stack segment and no stack switch occurs. If the SS register is being loaded and the segment pointed to is marked not present. If pushing the return address, flags, error code, or stack segment pointer exceeds the bounds of the new stack segment when a stack switch occurs.
#NP(error_code) If code segment, interrupt-, trap-, or task gate, or TSS is not present.
#TS(error_code) If the RPL of the stack segment selector in the TSS is not equal to the DPL of the code segment being accessed by the interrupt or trap gate. If DPL of the stack segment descriptor pointed to by the stack segment selector in the TSS is not equal to the DPL of the code segment descriptor for the interrupt or trap gate. If the stack segment selector in the TSS is NULL. If the stack segment for the TSS is not a writable data segment. If segment-selector index for stack segment is outside descriptor table limits.
#PF(fault-code) If a page fault occurs.
#UD If the LOCK prefix is used.
#AC(EXT) If alignment checking is enabled, the gate DPL is 3, and a stack push is unaligned.

Real-Address Mode Exceptions

#GP If a memory operand effective address is outside the CS, DS, ES, FS, or GS segment limit. If the interrupt vector number is outside the IDT limits.
#SS If stack limit violation on push. If pushing the return address, flags, or error code onto the stack exceeds the bounds of the stack segment.
#UD If the LOCK prefix is used.

Virtual-8086 Mode Exceptions

#GP(error_code) (For INT n, INTO, or BOUND instruction) If the IOPL is less than 3 or the DPL of the interrupt-, trap-, or task-gate descriptor is not equal to 3. If the instruction pointer in the IDT or in the interrupt-, trap-, or task gate is beyond the code segment limits. If the segment selector in the interrupt-, trap-, or task gate is NULL. If a interrupt-, trap-, or task gate, code segment, or TSS segment selector index is outside its descriptor table limits. If the vector selects a descriptor outside the IDT limits. If an IDT descriptor is not an interrupt-, trap-, or task-descriptor. If an interrupt is generated by the INT n instruction and the DPL of an interrupt-, trap-, or task-descriptor is less than the CPL. If the segment selector in an interrupt- or trap-gate does not point to a segment descriptor for a code segment. If the segment selector for a TSS has its local/global bit set for local.
#SS(error_code) If the SS register is being loaded and the segment pointed to is marked not present. If pushing the return address, flags, error code, stack segment pointer, or data segments exceeds the bounds of the stack segment.
#NP(error_code) If code segment, interrupt-, trap-, or task gate, or TSS is not present.
#TS(error_code) If the RPL of the stack segment selector in the TSS is not equal to the DPL of the code segment being accessed by the interrupt or trap gate. If DPL of the stack segment descriptor for the TSS’s stack segment is not equal to the DPL of the code segment descriptor for the interrupt or trap gate. If the stack segment selector in the TSS is NULL. If the stack segment for the TSS is not a writable data segment. If segment-selector index for stack segment is outside descriptor table limits.
#PF(fault-code) If a page fault occurs.
#BP If the INT 3 instruction is executed.
#OF If the INTO instruction is executed and the OF flag is set.
#UD If the LOCK prefix is used.
#AC(EXT) If alignment checking is enabled, the gate DPL is 3, and a stack push is unaligned.

Compatibility Mode Exceptions

Same exceptions as in protected mode.

64-Bit Mode Exceptions

#GP(error_code) If the instruction pointer in the 64-bit interrupt gate or 64-bit trap gate is non-canonical. If the segment selector in the 64-bit interrupt or trap gate is NULL. If the vector selects a descriptor outside the IDT limits. If the vector points to a gate which is in non-canonical space. If the vector points to a descriptor which is not a 64-bit interrupt gate or 64-bit trap gate. If the descriptor pointed to by the gate selector is outside the descriptor table limit. If the descriptor pointed to by the gate selector is in non-canonical space. If the descriptor pointed to by the gate selector is not a code segment. If the descriptor pointed to by the gate selector doesn’t have the L-bit set, or has both the L-bit and D-bit set. If the descriptor pointed to by the gate selector has DPL CPL.
#SS(error_code) If a push of the old EFLAGS, CS selector, EIP, or error code is in non-canonical space with no stack switch. If a push of the old SS selector, ESP, EFLAGS, CS selector, EIP, or error code is in non-canonical space on a stack switch (either CPL change or no-CPL with IST).
#NP(error_code) If the 64-bit interrupt-gate, 64-bit trap-gate, or code segment is not present.
#TS(error_code) If an attempt to load RSP from the TSS causes an access to non-canonical space. If the RSP from the TSS is outside descriptor table limits.
#PF(fault-code) If a page fault occurs.
#UD If the LOCK prefix is used.
#AC(EXT) If alignment checking is enabled, the gate DPL is 3, and a stack push is unaligned.