DEC (Decrement by 1)

Opcodes

Opcode Instruction Op/En 64-Bit Mode Compat/Leg Mode Description
FE /1 DEC r/m8 M Valid Valid Decrement r/m8 by 1.
REX + FE /1 DEC r/m8* M Valid N.E. Decrement r/m8 by 1.
FF /1 DEC r/m16 M Valid Valid Decrement r/m16 by 1.
FF /1 DEC r/m32 M Valid Valid Decrement r/m32 by 1.
REX.W + FF /1 DEC r/m64 M Valid N.E. Decrement r/m64 by 1.
48+rw DEC r16 O N.E. Valid Decrement r16 by 1.
48+rd DEC r32 O N.E. Valid Decrement r32 by 1.

NOTES:

*

In 64-bit mode, r/m8 can not be encoded to access the following byte registers if a REX prefix is used: AH, BH, CH, DH.

Instruction Operand Encoding

Op/En Operand 1 Operand 2 Operand 3 Operand 4
M ModRM:r/m (r, w) NA NA NA
O opcode + rd (r, w) NA NA NA

Description

Subtracts 1 from the destination operand, while preserving the state of the CF flag. The destination operand can be a register or a memory location. This instruction allows a loop counter to be updated without disturbing the CF flag. (To perform a decrement operation that updates the CF flag, use a SUB instruction with an immediate operand of 1.)

This instruction can be used with a LOCK prefix to allow the instruction to be executed atomically.

In 64-bit mode, DEC r16 and DEC r32 are not encodable (because opcodes 48H through 4FH are REX prefixes). Otherwise, the instruction’s 64-bit mode default operation size is 32 bits. Use of the REX.R prefix permits access to additional registers (R8-R15). Use of the REX.W prefix promotes operation to 64 bits.

See the summary chart at the beginning of this section for encoding data and limits.

Operation

DEST ← DEST – 1;

Flags Affected

The CF flag is not affected. The OF, SF, ZF, AF, and PF flags are set according to the result.

Protected Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) If the destination operand is located in a non-writable segment. If a memory operand effective address is outside the CS, DS, ES, FS, or GS segment limit. If the DS, ES, FS, or GS register contains a NULL segment selector.
#SS(0) If a memory operand effective address is outside the SS segment limit.
#PF(fault-code) If a page fault occurs.
#AC(0) If alignment checking is enabled and an unaligned memory reference is made while the current privilege level is 3.
#UD If the LOCK prefix is used but the destination is not a memory operand.

Real-Address Mode Exceptions

#GP If a memory operand effective address is outside the CS, DS, ES, FS, or GS segment limit.
#SS If a memory operand effective address is outside the SS segment limit.
#UD If the LOCK prefix is used but the destination is not a memory operand.

Virtual-8086 Mode Exceptions

#GP(0) If a memory operand effective address is outside the CS, DS, ES, FS, or GS segment limit.
#SS(0) If a memory operand effective address is outside the SS segment limit.
#PF(fault-code) If a page fault occurs.
#AC(0) If alignment checking is enabled and an unaligned memory reference is made.
#UD If the LOCK prefix is used but the destination is not a memory operand.

Compatibility Mode Exceptions

Same exceptions as in protected mode.

64-Bit Mode Exceptions

#SS(0) If a memory address referencing the SS segment is in a non-canonical form.
#GP(0) If the memory address is in a non-canonical form.
#PF(fault-code) If a page fault occurs.
#AC(0) If alignment checking is enabled and an unaligned memory reference is made while the current privilege level is 3.
#UD If the LOCK prefix is used but the destination is not a memory operand.